Welkom in Jampa’s Mandala


Welkom in Jampa’s Mandala. Sarva Mangalam , moge alles voorspoedig voor je zijn !

Reis met me mee langs de boeddhistische heilige plaatsen in India :

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2558 BE

Jampa's Mandala

Contemplation on the mind



The mind is the source of everything. Buddhism is not a method of realisation of the self, there is no self (atman). Self is empty of inherent existence, as are all phenomena, and only a relative concept of the mind. There are no phenomena, they are empty concepts. But this is the View of a Buddha. A person who has attained full enlightenment. By practising compassion you will develop the View. By meditating on emptiness you will see the need for compassion. Once you want to eradicate all suffering the Bodhicitta mind will arise,the wish to liberate all sentient beings. There is no ego, so why do you suffer from it by clinging to it ?

Seven Point Cause and Effect Meditation



from Geshe Wangyal’s Door of Liberation

1 – Recognising all beings having been our mothers


To conceive the spirit of enlightenment, you first must develop equanimity toward all beings, and then contemplate the sevenfold cause-and-effect spiritual instruction given by Maitreya to Asanga. First imagine before you a being who has neither helped you nor harmed you. Think, “From his own point of view, he wants happiness and does not want suffering, just like everybody else. I will free myself from attraction and aversion. I will not feel close to some and help them while feeling distant from others and harming them. I will develop equanimity toward all beings. Lamas and gods, enable me to do this!”

Once you feel equanimity toward that neutral person, imagine a person who attracts you. Try to feel equanimity toward that person. Think, “My Partiality is due to my attraction. Since I have always desired attractive beings, I have been reborn constantly in the miserable life-cycle.” Thus restrain your desire and meditate.

Once you feel equanimity toward that attractive person, imagine an unattractive person. Try to feel equanimity toward him. Think, “Because there has been discord between us, I have developed an aversion to him so lack equanimity. Without it, I cannot conceive the spirit of enlightenment ment! ” Thus restrain your aversion and meditate.

When you feel equanimity toward that unattractive person, imagine both persons together. Think, “These two are the same in that each, from her own viewpoint, wants happiness and doesn’t want misery. From my viewpoint, this one who seems so close now has been reborn as my enemy countless times. This one toward whom I feel hostile has been reborn as my mother countless times and has cared for me with love. Which one should like? Which one should I hate? I will feel equanimity and free myself from attachment and aversion. Lamas and gods, please enable me to do this!”

When you feel such equanimity, extend it to all beings. “All beings a the same. Each wants happiness and doesn’t want misery. All beings are relatives. Therefore I will learn equanimity and be free from attachment and aversion to near and far, helping some and harming others. Lamas and gods, help me to accomplish this!”

Once you have developed the mind of equanimity, implement the first of the seven causal instructions for attaining the spirit of enlightenment. Visualize the lamas and gods before you and contemplate: “Why are all beings my relatives? As there is no beginning to the life-cycle, there has also been no beginning to my rebirths. In passing through these countless lives there is no form of life which I have not adopted countless times, and there is no country or realm in which I have not been born. Of all beings, there is not one who has not been my mother innumerable times. Each has been my mother in human form countless times, and will become my mother many times again.”

2 – Recalling the kindness of others

When you have fully experienced this truth, contemplate the kindness which living beings have shown you when they were your mother. Visualise the lamas and gods before you, and imagine clearly your mother of this life, when she was young and as she grew old. “Not only is she my mother this life, but she has cared for me for lives beyond number. In this lifetime, she lovingly sheltered me in her womb, and when I was born she lovingly put me on soft pillows and cradled me in her arms. She held me to the warmth of her breasts, and suckled me with her sweet milk. She welcomed me with loving smiles and looked at me with happy eyes. She cleaned my snotty nose and wiped away my excrement. My slightest ailment gave her worse misery than the thought of losing her own life. Scorning all affliction, torments, and abuse, not considering herself at all, she provided me as she could with food and shelter. She gave me infinite happiness and benefit, and protected me from measureless misery and harm.” Contemplate her very great kindness. Then, in the same way contemplate the kindness of your father and others close to you, for they have also been your mother countless times.

When you have fully experienced this truth, meditate on beings toward whom you feel impartial. “Though it now seems that they have no relationship to me, they have been my mother times beyond number, and in those lives they protected me with love and kindness.” When you have experienced this truth, meditate on those beings who are now your adversaries. imagine them clearly in front of you, and think: “How can I now feel that these are my enemies? As lifetimes are beyond number, they have been my mother countless times. When they were my mother they provided me with measureless happiness and benefits and protected me from misery and harm. Without them I could not have lasted even a short time and without me they could not have endured even a short time. We have felt such strong attachment countless times. That they are now my adversaries is due to bad evolutionary actions. At another time in the future they will again be my mother who protects me with love.” When you have fully experienced this truth, meditate on the kindness of all beings.

3 – Resolving to repay the kindness of others

Then meditate on repaying the kindness of all beings, your mothers. Visualize the lamas and deities before you and contemplate: “From beginningless time these mothers have protected me with kindness. Yet as their minds are disturbed by the demons of addictive passions, they have not obtained independence of mind, and are crazed. They lack the eye to see either the path to the high states of humans and gods or the path to Nirvana, the supreme good. They are without a spiritual teacher, the one who is the leader of the blind. Continually pummeled by the discord of wrong deeds, they slip toward the edge of the terrifying abyss of rebirth in the life-cycle, especially its lower states. To ignore these kind mothers would be shameless. To return their kindness I will free them from the misery of the life-cycle and establish them in the bliss of liberation. Lamas and gods, enable me to do this.”

4 – Affectionate Love

Then meditate love. Imagine a person to whom you are strongly attached, such as your mother. “How can she have undefiled happiness when she does not even have the defiled happiness of the life-cycle? What she now boasts of as happiness slips away, changing to misery. She yearns and yearns, strives and strives, desiring a moment’s happiness, but she is only creating the causes of future misery and rebirths in lower states of being. In this life as well, weary and exhausted, she creates only misery. She definitely does not have real happiness. How wonderful it would be if she possessed happiness and all the causes of happiness! May she possess them! I will cause her to possess happiness and all its causes. Lamas and gods, Please enable me to do this!”

When you have gained experience of this, continue to meditate, first imagining other persons who are close to you, such as your father, then imagining a person toward whom you feel impartial, then an adversary, and finally all beings.

5 – Compassion

Then do the meditation of great compassion and universal responsibility: “My kind fathers and mothers, whose number would fill the sky, are helplessly bound by evolutionary actions and fettering passions. The four rivers, the river of desire, existence, ignorance, and fanaticism, sweep them helplessly into the currents of the life-cycle, where they are battered by the waves of birth, old age, sickness, and death. They are completely tied up by the tight and hard to break bonds of various kinds of evolutionary actions. From beginningless time they have entered into the iron cage of holding the concepts ‘I’ and ‘mine’ in the center of the heart. This cage is very difficult for anyone to open. Enshrouded by the great darkness of ignorance, which obscures judgment of good and evil, they do not even see the path leading to the happy states of being. Much less do they see the path leading to liberation and enlightenment.

6 – The Special Intention

“These wretched beings are ceaselessly tortured by the suffering of misery, the suffering of change, and the all-pervasive suffering of creation. I have seen all beings, my mothers, wretched, engulfed in the ocean of the life-cycle. If I do not save them, who will? If I were to ignore them, I would be shameless, the lowest of all. My desire to learn the Mahayana would be only words, and I could not show my face before the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Therefore, no matter what, I will develop the ability to pull all my kind sad mothers from the ocean of the life-cycle and to establish them in Buddhahood.”

Think this and generate a very strong and pure universal responsibility.

7 – Spirit of Enlightenment

Finally, meditate the spirit of enlightenment. Ask yourself whether or not you can establish all beings in Buddhahood, and reflect, “I do not know where I am going; how can I establish even one being in Buddhahood? Even those who have attained the positions of disciple or hermit Buddha can accomplish only the minor purposes of beings, and cannot establish beings in Buddhahood. It is only a perfect Buddha who can lead beings to full enlightenment. Therefore, no matter what, I will obtain peerless and completely perfect Buddhahood for the sake of all beings. Lamas and gods, please enable me to do this!”

Khandro-la Namsel Dronma




(Excerpted from an interview with Khadro-la conducted by Ven Roger Kunsang, and featured in
Mandala magazine, August 2008)

Ven. Roger Kunsang: Can you tell me why you left Tibet?
“I didn’t have the intention, and I didn’t have the money to travel. I followed a sign that came
in my dreams. There was a bus blowing its horn indicating its departure, and until I got on the
bus I was unaware of where I was heading. I learnt from the other people on that bus that they
were going to Lhasa and thence to Shigatse. A couple of days into the journey I learnt that
they were also planning to go to Mount Kailash.
“One day, while we had stopped our journey at Shigatse, I was circumambulating Tashi
Lhunpo Monastery when I came across an elderly man dressed in an Indian cloth doti. This
complete stranger gave me 2000 gormo. He asked me to sit beside him, and begun to tell me
many unusual stories. He told me that India was just beyond this mountain, and that I should
be meeting with His Holiness the Dalai Lama and many other lamas. He kept urging me to
head for India – and at the time it didn’t feel at all strange, although when I recall it now it
seems amazing to me.”
There was much hardship. I had no mission of my own and was just following the pilgrims. I
don’t remember very clearly how long the journey was, but I did fifteen koras round Mount
Kailash and due to my unusual actions and the words that I was speaking, rumors were going
around that I was a dakini. People began to line up to see me, even seeking blessings from
me. It was very tiring for me to deal with the crowds, but a very kind monk from a nearby
monastery took good care of me with food and drink. He even organized a better system for
the people who came to see me for blessings, etc. Many of those people expressed their wish
to go to India with me. One night, quite suddenly and without any discussion, I made up my
mind to leave for India and so a man who was our guide led seventeen of us from the bus
along the trail that leads to the border. He wasn’t very experienced and it took seventeen days
to reach Kathmandu in Nepal. It should have taken only seven days. We were in no man’s
land, and as there were no real paths or people to ask, it was impossible to tell whether we
were even out of Tibet. We had to just follow the signs I got in my dreams. When we were
confused about the way, I was instructed to go in the direction where there appeared a circle
of light. Maybe this was the blessing of the Dalai Lama or Palden Lhamo.
“Sometimes we had to walk all day without any food or drink, and sometimes we had to walk
all through the night. We were not prepared for such a long journey.
“When I arrived in Nepal, I fell seriously ill with food poisoning and could not continue with
my companions towards India. I had to stay at the reception center in Kathmandu, vomiting
blood, which made the staff suspicious that I had a contagious disease. I was left to sleep
outside the building in a field. I was so weak that I couldn’t change position. When I needed
to move, they used long sticks to push me back and forth because they were afraid to touch
me with their hands. As my condition worsened, the staff thought I wouldn’t survive, and so


asked me if I wanted to leave a last message for my family and asked for the address to deliver it.

“So I made a request for monks from a monastery to do prayers after I died and to take my
body for cremation to a peak which I later found out is the holy Nagarjuna hill where Buddha
had spoken the sutra called Langru Lungten.
“I asked them to take my urine in a bottle and give it to whomever they met first at the
Boudhanath Stupa entrance. By now I was semi-conscious, but they were kind enough to do
this favor for me. The person who took my urine met a man at the gate who turned out to be a
Tibetan physician. He tested my urine and diagnosed that I had been poisoned with meat,
prescribed some medicine and even sent me some blessing pills. My health improved
dramatically and I had many good dreams. When I recovered, I was sent to the Dharamsala
reception center, together with some other newly-arrived people.
“I arrived in Dharamsala not long after some monks from my village had quarreled with the
staff of the center – and so they had a negative impression of anyone who came from the
same area. Consequently I, too, became the victim. Since I was quite young I was asked
whether I would like to join school or did I want to have some skills training. My reply was
quite straightforward and honest. I said I had no interest in going to school and neither did I
want to learn something else. When I was back at home I always had the very strong will to
serve good meditators, and so I used to collect firewood and deliver water for the meditators
who lived around my village. I didn’t even know that Tibet was occupied by the Chinese and
that that was why Tibetans went into exile. I was not tortured by the Chinese and I didn’t
have any lack of food or clothing. My only wish was to see His Holiness the Dalai Lama, and
as I have a problem of going into craziness sometimes, I merely wanted to know from His
Holiness whether that was good or bad. That was all I wanted, otherwise I just wanted to
return to my own home.”
“I couldn’t get an audience with His Holiness because I was accused of having a contagious
disease which might infect him. Some said I was mad. Some even said I ought to be leaving
the center or be sent to an insane asylum. I was even banned from public audiences for
several months. Instead, I circumambulated the Dalai Lama’s palace every morning. One day,
I heard that His Holiness was coming back home, so I hid beside the road to greet him. As his
car passed by Namgyal Monastery, I saw a very bright light radiating on the front window of
the car and inside I saw him with many hands around his shoulders! It was the first time I had
ever seen His Holiness and I just jumped towards the car to prostrate, and I fell unconscious,
almost under the car.
“I was carried back to the center by a man from my village and again the shower of scolding
began. But I think a very strong change happened in me by seeing His Holiness and I never
got angry with the staff. I thought, ‘Oh! They have to take care of so many people and of
course they get upset sometimes.’
“Despite many requests, I still wasn’t given an audience with His Holiness. At a public
teaching I managed to find a seat. As he came in escorted by security personnel, I was possessed by the protector and the guards took me away from the courtyard where the
teachings were to take place, telling me to stay at the bottom of the stairs. I felt so sad to think
what evil karma I must have created in the past that now I can’t even see His Holiness.
“The teaching began with the recitation of the Heart Sutra. I could hear His Holiness
chanting, and as he was saying “no eyes, no nose,” etc., I started to have a very strange
feeling. By the time he was saying “form is empty and emptiness is form,” I felt rays of light
were showering on me, entering from the crown and filling my whole body. I felt lifted up in
the air. I had a strong feeling of joy and sentiment.
“As time went by, I came to know some meditators and came in contact with some great
lamas such as Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche and Khalkha Jetsun Dampa. I received blessing water
from them, and they, too, tried many ways to make my contact with His Holiness possible.
But no progress was made, and so I finally made up my mind to return to Tibet. I was
exceptionally sad at not being able to fulfill some of the tasks the old man in Shigatse has
asked me to do. There were some important things that I should do, such as making a long
life offering and some other secret thing, and time for all those activities was running out.
“I informed Kirti Tsenshab Rinpoche of my decision, but he insisted that I did not return. He
said that he saw in me something more important than just an oracle; he could see some
specialness in me. He said I would be very helpful to His Holiness, and advised me to remain
in Dharamsala. ‘I myself will make the golden bridge between you and His Holiness.’ As I
listened to him, I wondered why such a great scholar and great lama said such comments
about me. Soon after, and out of the blue, I was approved for an audience, together with other
new arrivals.
“There were a lot of us waiting anxiously. I saw His Holiness coming toward us and I saw
him with so much light radiating and many arms, just as I had seen him before. As soon as I
stood up to make prostrations, again I was possessed and taken away by the security guards.
Perhaps I was kicked or punched, because I found bruises on my body when I regained
“But after His Holiness granted an audience to all the other people, he asked to bring up the
lady oracle and so I was taken to him. As soon as I went to him, I grabbed at his feet and
went unconscious again. When I came back to normal His Holiness asked me about my home
and many other questions, but I was just left speechless. No words came out – I was too
overjoyed to say anything. Later I was able to tell him all that the old man had told me in
Shigatse and he heard all about me and my problems. I was confirmed as the oracle of the
protector and His Holiness asked me not to go back to Tibet. His Holiness granted me
different empowerments and instructions, and I begun to do the retreats that he advised me to
“A house was given to me by the private office within Namgyal Monastery. It’s the same
house I live in today. It was during that time when the teacher in the Dialectic School was
murdered by the group of Shugden worshipers, and there were rumors that I too would be
assassinated. The monks of Namgyal Monastery were very concerned about my safety. That’s how we became close. Actually, I tried to refuse their protection. I told them that if my
fate is to be killed, then nothing can make it not happen, but that if my karma is not to die, the
Shugden worshippers cannot harm me. The monks didn’t listen to me and they continuously
took good care of me.
“As I was very weak physically, His Holiness contacted Kyabje Trulshik Rinpoche and I was
sent to France for treatment. At that time I came to know Lama Zopa Rinpoche. Indeed,
because of my poor health I came to know so many people!
“During my retreat and practice there have been some good signs and some positive
outcomes too, but I like to say that all of these are just hallucinations. Whatever good
happens is no more than the blessing of His Holiness. I myself am no better than the poorest
being among the rest.
“About two years ago, His Holiness advised me that whenever the opportunity comes, I
should give teachings or any kind of service that I can deliver to those who are in need. But I
know I have nothing to offer to others. To tell you honestly, in my mind I have a very strong
belief that the essence of life is only to have the realization of bodhichitta and emptiness.
Though it is difficult to gain, my primary wish is to achieve indestructible faith in these two
before I die. If I cannot help people to generate these things, our meeting is just a waste of
time. Other than that, I am the poorest by inner, outer and secret perspectives. The best side
of me is only that I met the best Dharma, best practice and the best lamas.”
Ven. Roger: When did you first feel that you were a dakini?
K: “I always think I am not a dakini. I don’t know who I am. Some lamas say I am Khandro
Yeshe Tsogyal, some say I am Vajrayogini, and others say I am Tara. It might be their own
pure appearances. I myself think I am nothing special.
“When I was young some people said I was mad. Some said I was dakini. I don’t know. I
have no doubt that I have very strong karmic imprints from the past, because I have been very
dear to His Holiness and many other high lamas from Tibet and outside of Tibet. Some lamas
from Tibet, whom I never knew, sent me love, respect, good wishes and often offerings and
praises. Another reason is that sometimes the words to express the view of emptiness come
out of my mouth automatically – something I have never heard and studied before – but I
can’t remember later what I said.”

My standard reaction on negative comments



My standard reaction on negative comments on Youtube or other fora is the following :

Do not propagate your religion. Only those that have a real karmic relation with buddhadharma can understand it. Buddhism has three aspects :

1 it’s a gift to mankind : the science of mind
2 it’s a gift to mankind : the philosophy based upon natural laws
3 it’s a practice , only for those that see it as their religion.
Do not judge other religions ! Do not try to convert ! Practice love and compassion and you will find deep wisdom.

Based upon HH the Dalai Lama’s Teachings

De innerlijke uitleg van het levenswiel



Zes werelden van geboorte      Zes klesha’s

Goden                                       trots en zelfingenomenheid

Titanen                                     jaloezie en afgunst

Mensen                                    arrogantie en ik-gerichtheid

Geesten                                    hebzucht en gehechtheid

Dieren                                      onbewustheid en instinct

Hel                                           kwaadheid en geweld

Den-dro sum : drie hogere werelden

Ngen-dro sum: drie lagere werelden

KIJK OOK OP : http://www.buddhanet.net/wheel2.htm

Waterbowl Offerings in 9 days during Losar



Ngon Dro, 100.000 Waterbowl Offerings in 9 days, with Ven. Tenzin Chodron

Friday February 28, 6.00 pm until Sunday March 9, 6.00 pm

Ngon Dro is an extraordinary preliminary practice in Tibetan Buddhism. These practices are designed to accumulate merit and purify negativities in order to quickly generate realizations on the path. The ordinary preliminaries are contemplations on the difficulty of obtaining a perfect human rebirth, impermanence and death, the law of karma and the Dharma practice from the outset is a gradual process of mental development.
Without the experiences of the initial stages, it is impossible to reach the final goal, enlightenment. To build the ‘house’ of the Dharma, you need the foundation of preparing the mind by means of the preliminaries. Intellectual understanding is not enough but must be followed by intensive practice if true realization is to be gained.

Waterbowl oferings are one of the nine ngon dro’s in the Gelugpa tradition.
Generally it takes an individual around four months to complete the waterbowl
offerings. However, Lama Zopa Rinpoche, in his kindness, has permittedus to do these offerings in an unique group retreat. This way we can accumulate all water bowls offered by the participants so we can accomplish the 100.000 waterbowls all together in 9 days.

Losar 2014 will be on March 2. Because this retreat will take place in the first week of the new Tibetan year, the merit we collect as a group will be multiplied by

Benefits of making waterbowl offerings.
The altar is designed to inspire the mind and move the heart! The practice of making offerings helps us to practice generosity.
By offering to the Buddha’s we create a huge amount of positive merit, this nourishes our practice and study and helps us to attain liberation from
suffering and reach enlightenment as quickly as possible. It is beneficial not only in terms of the dharma, but also in our daily life. It is a remedy for miserliness.

The course includes meals, accommodation, bed linen and towel.
To help cover our costs: € 380, -


Nederlandse tekt

Unieke GROEPSRETRAITE 100.000 water offerandes

28 FEBRUARI – 9 MAART 2014

NGON DRO ol.v. Ani Tenzin Chodron

Drie invalshoeken om te participeren:

* Als deelnemer, waarbij in acht dagen, drie sessies per dag, de aantallen geofferde waterbakjes van de hele groep bij elkaar opgeteld mogen worden (Lama Zopa Rinpoche) en we aldus tezamen het aantal van 100.000 proberen te halen, wat dan een volledig gekwalificeerde Ngon Dro wordt.

We sluiten als groep op de laatste retraitedag af met een Dorje Khadro vuur offerande, waarin zwart sesamzaad wordt geofferd om alle omissies tijdens de retraite te zuiveren.

* Als ondersteuner, hiervoor kun je je per dag/sessie inschrijven. Je zorgt dat de waterkannen gevuld & klaargezet worden voor de deelnemers, de emmers waarin de waterbakjes worden geleegd afgevoerd worden, eventueel help je bij het legen van de waterbakjes aan het eind van de sessie en je helpt allerlei andere logistieke zaken oplossen. Tijdens de sessie kun je meedoen met de voorbereidende en afsluitende gebeden (in het engels) en het offeren van elke ronde/tafel waterbakjes. Iedere dag zijn er drie helpers nodig.

Deze ondersteuning geldt niet als een officiële Ngon Dro, maar je verzamelt wel heel veel positieve energie en je doet goede

indrukken op om in een volgende retraite zelf als deelnemer te fungeren

* Als sponsor van algemene offergaven, saffraan, waterbakjes, waterkannen, emmers, tafelzeil, grondzeil en wat er allemaal wel niet komt kijken bij zo’n intensieve groepsretraite. Zo gauw de namen van de deelnemers bekend zijn, kan het zijn dat je bijvoorbeeld een sangha lid helpt sponsoren om aan deze retraite mee te doen of een andere minder draagkrachtige deelnemer.

Je kunt specifieke toewijdingen opgeven voor het einde van de retraite.

Plaats: Maitreya Instituut Loenen. Kosten: € 380,-
Groepsgrootte: 15­20 deelnemers, internationaal/uit verschillende centra.
Mochten we onverhoopt het aantal water offerandes niet halen in deze week en heb je daartoe wel het advies van je leraar, dan kun je deze Ngon Dro thuis verder afmaken.


Geloven ?


De godsdiensten uit het Midden Oosten vereisen het geloof in een schepper-god. De religies uit het Oosten zoals het boeddhisme zijn een Pad.
Dit is een wezenlijk verschil met de godsdiensten zoals hindoeisme, islam, christendom en jodendom.
Geloven of onderzoeken ? Ik geloof niet. Ik tracht het Pad te volgen dat naar verlichting leidt. Dharma is het recept van de heelmeester , de boeddha, de ontwaakte. Boeddha vroeg niemand hem te geloven maar bood aan de weg te wijzen. Geen geloof dus, maar vertrouwen in het Pad.
Zo kom je de inconsequenties niet meer tegen van een god die almachtig is , maar zijn schepselen de keuze laat tussen goed en kwaad. Kiezen zij het laatste dan wacht hen de hel die de almachtige ook geschapen moet hebben. Hoe wreed is die god van liefde. Geen discussie meer over de vrije wil. De mens kan zijn condities veranderen en zo zijn handelingen zuiveren. Decondionering van je gedrag is het Pad naar bevrijding. Het bestaan kent geen begin en geen einde maar een geboorte in een geconditioneerd bestaan kan vermeden worden door de totale zuivering van het opgebouwde karma.
Dharma is nooit in een strijd gewikkeld met de wetenschap. Dharma omarmt wetenschap als deel van de menselijke ontwikkeling naar groter inzicht. Dharma is the science of mind. Wetenschap van de innerlijke werking van de geest die alles stuurt. De natuurwetenschappen brengen voornamelijk de uiterlijke verschijnselen aan het licht. Dharma is ethisch bepaald. Dat wat schade toebrengt aan de mede-wezens en de omgeving moet vermeden worden. Alle handelingen die bijdragen aan het geluk en het beschermen van het leven dienen bevorderd te worden.
Ik wens u een karmisch goed nieuw jaar toe.

Jampa Gyatso