Welkom in Jampa’s Mandala

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Welkom in Jampa’s Mandala. Sarva Mangalam , moge alles voorspoedig voor je zijn !

Jampa’s Mandala is een onafhankelijk boeddhistisch blog voor iedereen die belangstelling

voor het boeddhisme heeft. Ik ben een beoefenaar in de Tibetaanse richting.

Reis met me mee langs de boeddhistische heilige plaatsen in India :

Op dit blog ( film en foto) klik op :

https://jampasmandala.wordpress.com/category/buddhayatra-2011/

De films van mijn boeddhistische pelgrimstocht. Klik op :

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL479146176BE1B2D3&feature=plcp

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Jampa's Mandala

Ontwaken

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buddha

Onderstaand onderricht is gebaseerd op de uitleg door Lama Anagarika Govinda.Het is werkelijk de essentie van de boeddhistische dharma en daarom zeer kostbaar.

Prins Siddhartha ontwaakte onder de bodhi-boom in Bodhgaya en werd de Boeddha, de Ontwaakte.

Het verhaal is al vele malen verteld , maar wat gebeurde er toen eigenlijk ?

De sleutel tot het begrijpen van het inzicht van de Boeddha ligt in het zien van de keten van afhankelijk ontstaan (pratityasamutpada) en onwetendheid (avidya).

Als derde zag hij om zich heen schouwend het levensverlangen (tanha).

Wat is dan onwetendheid ? Het is het eenvoudigweg ontkennen van de onderlinge verbondenheid , waarin niets geïsoleerd en zonder met het geheel verbonden te zijn kan bestaan.

Onwetendheid zag Hij als de achtergrond voor de onbewust vormende krachten (samskara).In de gewone waaktoestand leiden deze krachten tot het onderscheid( !) dat de wereld verdeelt volgens een dualistische zienswijze van het zelf en niet-zelf,ik en jij , binnen en buiten , mijn en dijn , subject en object.

Het bewustzijn wordt in tweeën gedeeld , ons oorspronkelijk gewaarzijn gaat verloren en we worden ons bewust van onze geestelijk – lichamelijke totaliteit (nama-rupa).

Via de zes zintuiglijke vermogens ( sadayatana) maken we contact (sparsa) met de respectievelijke objecten van de zintuiglijke waarneming waarbij gevoelens (vedana) rijpen tot waarneming en sensaties die op hun beurt weer als plezierig of onplezierig ervaren worden of geen van beiden of beiden.

Boeddha zag dat onaangename gevoelens ons motiveren om alles te vermijden dat er toe zou kunnen leiden dat we die gevoelens weer ondergaan. Aangename gevoelens leiden echter tot het verlangen ze opnieuw te ervaren , zodat er een drang, een dorst (trishna) ontstaat die ons influistert datgene wat ons plezier verschaft te behouden en tot ons bezit te maken (upana).

Deze wens te bezitten en te behouden , deze begeerte , leidt ons keer op keer het domein van het worden (bhava) en veranderen binnen dus het domein van geboorte (jati) en daarom ook het domein van het oud worden en sterven (jara-marana).

Boeddha zag dat alleen door gebruik te maken van het bewustzijn (vijnana) het constante wordingsproces een wending gegeven kan worden .

Want ons bewustzijn is niet gebonden aan het ononderbroken proces van het gewaarworden van onszelf in tegenstelling tot de wereld , maar is ook in staat holistisch te ervaren.

Uit het bewustzijn van onze onafscheidelijke verwantschap binnen het universum en daarom van onze essentiële verbondenheid met alle bewuste wezens ontstonden , als uit zuivere lotusbloemen:

de Vier Onmetelijke Gedachten

Citeer ze dagelijks

MAITRI het allesdoordringend bewustzijn van liefde

Mogen alle wezens geluk vinden en de oorzaken van geluk

KARUNI het allesdoordringend bewustzijn van mededogen

Mogen alle wezens vrij zijn van lijden en de oorzaken van lijden

MUDITA het allesdoordringend bewustzijn van vreugde

Mogen alle wezens nooit gescheiden zijn van het grote geluk dat voorbij het lijden is

UPEKSHA het allesdoordringend bewustzijn van gelijkmoedigheid

Mogen alle wezens verkeren in gelijkmoedigheid zonder gehechtheid aan naasten en afkeer van vreemden

Upeksha of gelijkmoedigheid komt tot stand door de realisatie van de eerste drie en is het geestelijk evenwicht (tatramajjhattata) dat in de mens tot ontwikkeling komt door liefde, mededogen en vreugde en dat ieder mens in staat stelt alle mensen ( en dieren!) zonder onderscheid of begrenzingen in het hart te sluiten.

Oldest Buddhist shrine holds clues to Buddha’s birth

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Lieu de recueillement sur le toit

There are about 500 million Buddhists worldwide, but it’s unclear exactly when in history this religion began. The Buddha’s life story spread first through oral tradition, and little physical evidence about Buddhism’s early years has been found.

Now, scientists for the first time have uncovered archaeological evidence of when the Buddha’s monumentally influential life occurred. Excavations in Nepal date a Buddhist shrine, located at what is said to be the Buddha’s birthplace, to the sixth century B.C.

The research, published in the journal Antiquity, describes the remains of a timber structure about the same size and shape as a temple built at the same site in the third century B.C.

Archaeologists also found reason to think that a tree grew at the center of this ancient structure, lending support to the traditional story that the Buddha’s mother held onto a tree branch while giving birth to him.

“This is one of those rare occasions when belief, tradition, archaeology and science actually come together,” lead study author Robin Coningham, professor at Durham University in the United Kingdom, said at a press briefing Monday.

If this study is correct, the Buddha’s actual life could have overlapped with a popularly recognized time frame of 563-483 B.C. But lots of other date ranges for the Buddha have been tossed around — some scholars say 448 to 368 B.C., for instance. (The UNESCO website about his birthplace says 623 B.C.)

“We know the entirety of the shrine sequence started in the sixth century B.C., and this sheds light on a very long debate,” Coningham said.

A place for pilgrims

The Lumbini site in Nepal is one of four principal locations that are believed to be connected with the Buddha’s life. Bodh Gaya is where he is became enlightened, Sarnath is where he first preached and Kusinagara is where he died.

Lumbini is located in “a subtropical chain of forests, marshes and grasslands” between Nepal’s border with India and the Siwalik Range of the Himalayas, according to the study.

Historical documents from Chinese travelers show that pilgrims made the journey to Lumbini for many centuries.

The site was lost and stopped attracting pilgrims after the 15th century — no one knows why — but Lumbini was rediscovered in 1896. It was declared the birthplace of Buddha because of a sandstone pillar there, dating from the third century B.C. The pillar’s inscription states that Emperor Ashoka visited this site of Buddha’s birth.

Scholars say the more modern Maya Devi Temple at Lumbini, named after the mother of Buddha, was constructed on top of the foundations of more than one earlier temple or stupa, which is a dome-shaped Buddhist monument.

One of those older temples dates back to the third century B.C., from the time of Emperor Ashoka. But there’s also evidence of the even earlier temple, which appears to have covered about the same size and shape as the Ashokan temple, Coningham said.

The earliest site

Beneath remains of the Ashokan temple, archaeologists found a series of postholes from where timber posts had rotted out.

“Indeed, our excavations have demonstrated that the earliest construction at Lumbini appears to have comprised a timber fence or railing marking a cardinal direction,” the study authors wrote.

The central, open portion of the most ancient temple appears to have housed a tree, based on the discovery of large fragments of mineralized tree roots. This part of the temple also had never been covered by a roof.

To establish the dates of the earliest Buddhist shrine at Lumbini, Coningham and colleagues analyzed charcoal found within postholes, as well as sand. Different techniques used on each of these materials pointed to the same conclusion of the sixth century B.C., but the postholes indicated a range of about 800 to 545 B.C.

“If the postholes at Lumbini are indicative of a tree shrine, ritual activity could have commenced either during or shortly after the life of the Buddha,” the study authors wrote.

Julia Shaw, archaeologist at University College London, applauded the research but noted in an e-mail that other ritual frameworks existed at the same time as early Buddhism, which could complicate the conclusions of the study.

“It would be difficult to determine whether the tree shrine in question was intended for the worship of the Buddha or was part of a distinct cultic context,” she said.

But Coningham said that it’s unlikely that this earlier structure belonged to a different spiritual tradition, other than Buddhism, because of the “continuity” of the site between the sixth century B.C. and third century B.C. structures. The Ashokan temple is clearly Buddhist, and the earlier shrine had the same footprint.

“Often when you have sites of one religious activity overtaken by another, you actually get quite dramatic changes within orientation, within use of structure,” Coningham said.

Moreover, before the sixth century B.C., the area where the site is was just cultivated land, he said.

The new archaeological research on the Buddha’s life will be featured in a National Geographic documentary called “Buried Secrets of the Buddha” premiering in February. The National Geographic Society partly funded the research.

Buddhism Fast Facts

When Buddha lived

Buddha was born as Siddhartha Gautama, in the gardens of Lumbini in Nepal. His parents were wealthy. At age 29, he renounced his family and became a seeker, Coningham said. According to tradition, Buddha found truth when he sat down under a tree, which is now called the Bo tree.

The Buddha happened to be born during a period of dramatic change, Coningham said. Coins were introduced, urbanization was occurring and a merchant class emerged.

When the Buddha died at age 80, he recommended that all Buddhists visit Lumbini, study authors said.

Today, more than a million pilgrims visit Lumbini each year. The new research, in uncovering layers of history, adds new dimensions of interest to the site.

Follow Elizabeth Landau on Twitter at @lizlandau

source : CNN.com

Thirty-seven Verses on the Practices of Bodhisattvas

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Lokeshvara Bodhgaya Mahabodhi Temple photo : Jampa 2011

Nama Lokeshvaraya

Though he sees that in all phenomena there is no coming and going,
He strives solely for the sake of beings:
To the sublime teacher inseparable from Avalokiteshvara, the Protector of Beings,
I pay constant homage with respectful body, speech, and mind.
The perfect buddhas—source of happiness and ultimate peace—
Exist through having accomplished the sacred Dharma,
And that, in turn, depends on knowing how to practice it;
This practice of the bodhisattvas I shall therefore now explain.
1
Now that I have this great ship, a precious human life, so hard to obtain,
I must carry myself and others across the ocean of samsara.
To that end, to listen, reflect, and meditate
Day and night, without distraction, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
2
In my native land waves of attachment to friends and kin surge,
Hatred for enemies rages like fire,
The darkness of stupidity, not caring what to adopt or avoid, thickens-
To abandon my native land is the practice of a bodhisattva.
3
When unfavorable places are abandoned, disturbing emotions gradually fade;
When there are no distractions, positive activities naturally increase;
As awareness becomes clearer, confidence in the Dharma grows-
To rely on solitude is the practice of a bodhisattva.
4
Close friends who have long been together will separate,
Wealth and possessions gained with much effort will be left behind,
Consciousness, a guest, will leave the hotel of the body-
To give up the concerns of this life is the practice of a bodhisattva.
5
In bad company, the three poisons grow stronger,
Listening, reflection, and meditation decline,
And loving-kindness and compassion vanish
To avoid unsuitable friends is the practice of a bodhisattva.
6
Through reliance on a true spiritual friend one’s faults will fade
And good qualities will grow like a waxing moon
To consider him even more precious
Than one’s own body is the practice of a bodhisattva.
7
Whom can worldly gods protect
Themselves imprisoned in samsara?
To take refuge in the Three Jewels
Who never fail those they protect is the practice of a bodhisattva.
8
The Buddha taught that the unendurable suffering of the lower realms
Is the fruit of unvirtuous actions.
Therefore, to never act unvirtuously,
Even at the cost of one’s life, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
9
Like dew on grass, the delights of the three worlds
By their very nature evaporate in an instant.
To strive for the supreme level of liberation,
Which never changes, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
10
If all the mothers who have loved me since beginningless time are suffering,
What is the use of my own happiness?
So, with the aim of liberating limitless sentient beings,
To set my mind on enlightenment is the practice of a bodhisattva.
11
All suffering without exception arises from desiring happiness for oneself,
While perfect buddhahood is born from the thought of benefiting others.
Therefore, to really exchange
My own happiness for the suffering of others is the practice of a bodhisattva.
12
If someone driven by great desire
Seizes all my wealth, or induces others to do so,
To dedicate to him my body, possessions,
And past, present, and future merit is the practice of a bodhisattva.
13
If, in return for not the slightest wrong of mine,
Someone were to cut off even my very head,
Through the power of compassion to take all his negative actions
Upon myself is the practice of a bodhisattva.
14
Even if someone says all sorts of derogatory things about me
And proclaims them throughout the universe,
In return, out of loving-kindness,
To extol that person’s qualities is the practice of a bodhisattva.
15
Even if in the midst of a large gathering
Someone exposes my hidden faults with insulting language,
To bow to him respectfully,
Regarding him as a spiritual friend, is the practice of a bodhisattva.

image
Bodhgaya photo : jampa 2011

16
Even if one I’ve lovingly cared for like my own child
Regards me as an enemy,
To love him even more,
As a mother loves a sick child, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
17
Even if my peers or my inferiors
Out of pride do all they can to debase me,
To respectfully consider them like my teachers
On the crown of my head is the practice of a bodhisattva.
18
Even when utterly destitute and constantly maligned by others,
Afflicted by terrible illness and prey to evil forces,
To still draw upon myself the suffering and wrongdoing of all beings
And not lose heart is the practice of a bodhisattva.
19
Though I may be famous, and revered by many,
And as rich as the God of Wealth himself,
To see that the wealth and glory of the world are without essence,
And to be free of arrogance, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
20
If one does not conquer one’s own hatred,
The more one fights outer enemies, the more they will increase.
Therefore, with the armies of loving-kindness and compassion,
To tame one’s own mind is the practice of a bodhisattva.
21
Sense pleasures and desirable things are like saltwater-
The more one tastes them, the more one’s thirst increases.
To abandon promptly
All objects which arouse attachment is the practice of a bodhisattva.
22
All that appears is the work of one’s own mind;
The nature of mind is primordially free from conceptual limitations.
To recognize this nature
And not to entertain concepts of subject and object is the practice of a bodhisattva.
23
When encountering objects which please us,
To view them like rainbows in summer,
Not ultimately real, however beautiful they appear,
And to relinquish craving and attachment, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
24
The various forms of suffering are like the death of one’s child in a dream:
By clinging to deluded perceptions as real we exhaust ourselves.
Therefore, when encountering unfavorable circumstances,
To view them as illusions is the practice of a bodhisattva.
25
If those who wish for enlightenment must give away even their own bodies,
How much more should it be true of material objects?
Therefore, without expectation of result or reward,
To give with generosity is the practice of a bodhisattva.
26
If, lacking discipline, one cannot accomplish one’s own good,
It is laughable to think of accomplishing the good of others.
Therefore, to observe discipline
Without samsaric motives is the practice of a bodhisattva.
27
For a bodhisattva who desires the joys of virtue,
All who harm him are like a precious treasure.
Therefore, to cultivate patience toward all,
Without resentment, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
28
Merely for their own sake, even shravakas and pratyekabuddhas
Make efforts like someone whose hair is on fire trying to put it out:
Seeing this, for the sake of all beings,
To practice diligence, the source of excellent qualities, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
29
Knowing that through profound insight thoroughly grounded in sustained calm
The disturbing emotions are completely conquered,
To practice the concentration which utterly transcends
The four formless states is the practice of a bodhisattva.
30
In the absence of wisdom, perfect enlightenment cannot be attained
Through the other five perfections alone.
Therefore, to cultivate wisdom combined with skillful means
And free from the three concepts is the practice of a bodhisattva.
31
If I do not examine my own defects,
Though outwardly a Dharma practitioner, I may act contrary to the Dharma.
Therefore, continuously to examine my own faults
And give them up is the practice of a bodhisattva.
32
If, impelled by negative emotions, I relate the faults
Of other bodhisattvas, I will myself degenerate.
Therefore, to not talk about the faults of anyone
Who has entered the Mahayana is the practice of a bodhisattva.
33
Offerings and respect may bring discord
And cause listening, reflection, and meditation to decline.
Therefore, to avoid attachment
To the homes of friends and benefactors is the practice of a bodhisattva.
34
Harsh words disturb the minds of others
And spoil our own bodhisattva practice.
Therefore, to give up rough speech,
Which others find unpleasant, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
35
When emotions become habitual, they are hard to get rid of with antidotes.
Therefore, with mindfulness and vigilance, to seize the weapon of the antidote
And crush attachment and other negative emotions
The moment they arise is the practice of a bodhisattva.
36
In short, wherever I am, whatever I do,
To be continually mindful and alert,
Asking, “What is the state of my mind?”
And accomplishing the good of others is the practice of a bodhisattva.
37
Dedicating to enlightenment
Through wisdom purified of the three concepts
All merit achieved by such endeavor,
To remove the suffering of numberless beings, is the practice of a bodhisattva.
Following the teachings of the holy beings,
I have arranged the points taught in the sutras, tantras, and shastras
As The Thirty-seven Verses on the Practice of a Bodhisattva
For the benefit of those who wish to train on the bodhisattva path.
Since my understanding is poor, and I have little education,
This is no composition to delight the learned;
But as it is based on the sutras and teachings of holy beings
I think it is genuinely the practice of the bodhisattvas.
However, it is hard for someone unintelligent like me
To fathom the great waves of the bodhisattvas’ activities,
So I beg the forgiveness of the holy ones
For my contradictions, irrelevances, and other mistakes.
Through the merit arising from this
And through the power of the sublime bodhichitta, relative and absolute,
May all beings become like the Lord Avalokiteshvara,
Who is beyond the extremes of samsara and nirvana.

For his own benefit and that of others, Thogme, a teacher of scripture and logic,
composed this text at
Rinchen Phug, in Ngulchu.

image

Bodhgaya photo : Jampa 2011

Text Outline

Introduction
Opening Verses

PART ONE: The Preparation
v.1 First, the need to give meaning to this human existence of yours, so rare and difficult to obtain
v.2 Second, abandoning your native land, the source of the three poisons
v.3 Third, living in solitary places, the source of all good qualities
v.4 Fourth, giving up the concerns of this life by reflecting on impermanence
v.5 Fifth, avoiding unsuitable friends, whose company creates conditions unfavorable to your progress
v.6 Sixth, relying on a spiritual teacher, whose presence creates conditions favorable to your progress
v.7 Seventh, going for refuge, the entrance to the Buddhist teachings

PART TWO: The Main Teachings, Illuminating the Path
v.8 First, the path for beings of lesser capacity
v.9 Second, the path for beings of medium capacity
Third, the path for beings of superior capacity.

v.10     1. The bodhichitta of intention.
     2. The bodhichitta of application
         I. Relative bodhichitta
v.11             A. The meditation practice of exchanging oneself and others
             B. The post meditation practice of using unfavorable circumstances on the path
                 i. Using on the path the four things that you do not want to happen
v.12                     a. How to use loss on the path
v.13                     b. How to use suffering on the path
v.14                     c. How to use disgrace on the path
v.15                     d. How to use disparagement on the path
                 ii. Using on the path the two things that are difficult to bear
v.16                     a. How to use on the path being wronged in return for kindness
v.17                     b. How to use humiliation on the path
                 iii. Using deprivation and prosperity on the path
v.18                     a. How to use deprivation on the path
v.19                     b. How to use prosperity on the path
                 iv. Using hatred and desire on the path
v.20                     a. How to use objects of hatred on the path
v.21                     b. How to use objects of desire on the path       
II. Absolute bodhichitta
v.22             A.  The meditation practice of remaining in a state free of conceptual elaborations without any
clinging
             B.  The post meditation practice of abandoning any belief in the objects of desire and aversion as
truly existing
v.23                 i. Abandoning any belief in the objects of desire as truly existing
v.24                 ii. Abandoning any belief in the objects of aversion as truly existing
     3. The precepts for training in those practices
         I. T raining in the six transcendent perfections
v.25             A. T ranscendent generosity
v.26             B. T ranscendent discipline
v.27             C. T ranscendent patience
v.28             D. T ranscendent diligence
v.29             E. T ranscendent concentration
v.30             F . T ranscendent wisdom
         II. T raining in the four instructions taught in the Sutra
v.31             A. To examine oneself for one’s own defects and to give them up
v.32             B. To give up speaking of a bodhisattva’s faults
v.33             C. To give up attachment to a sponsor’s property
v.34             D. To give up harsh speech
v.35         III. T raining in how to be rid of the negative emotions
v.36         IV. T raining in accomplishing others’ good with mindfulness and vigilance
v.37         V. Dedicating the merit to perfect enlightenment

CONCLUDING VERSES
     1. How and for whom this text was composed
     2. The unerring nature of these practices
     3. A humble prayer for forgiveness
     4. Dedicating the merit of having composed this text
     5. The colophon
    
FINAL ADVICE
Ngulchu Thogme Sangpo life :

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-BH/bh117491.htm